What is Osteoporosis? Causes, symptoms, complication and treatment

What is Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a bone disease that causes the blanks to widen between the bone cells, becoming thinner, more porous and brittle, making them easily breakable by bending or making any normal, non-strenuous movements.

Osteoporosis is usually diagnosed when a direct impact on the bones is caused by fall or bruising.

Fractures in the hip, elbow, and spine are common in women over the age of 50. Osteoporosis is not painful, until the fracture occurs.

What Causes Osteoporosis?

In a natural state, a man of old age loses part of the bone density, but some people lose their bone density much faster than others, leading to osteoporosis and an increased risk of fractures.

Osteoporosis is associated with loss of bone density associated with its composition of calcium and minerals and is caused by the inability of the body to replace the old bone cells with modern bone (bone building) or excessive body re-absorption of bone calcium.

Women are more prone to osteoporosis, particularly in the postmenopausal period, resulting in an annual loss of bone density of 3%, while men lose 1% per year.

Causes of Osteoporosis:

  • Feminine sex.
  • More than 50 years old.
  • Family history of osteoporosis.
  • Bone mass deficiency associated with reduced body size
  • Hormonal disorders, such as thyroid activity, decrease the concentration of female hormone (estrogen) or low testosterone levels in men.
  • Rheumatoid diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Malnutrition and lack of vitamins and minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, vitamin B12 or vitamin D.
  • Undergo surgery to reduce stomach size.
  • Anorexia nervosa.
  • Hyperthyroidism.
  • Frequent sitting and lack of exercise.
  • Smoking.
  • Take some medications for a long time such as cortisone and some anticonvulsants, cancer drugs, GERD and some immunological drugs.
  • Coffee, tea and some soft drinks containing caffeine.
  • Endocrine diseases such as enlargement of limbs, ganglia and diabetes.
  • Gastrointestinal diseases such as liver or chronic bowel disease for their effect on calcium absorption of digested food.
  • Other diseases such as kidney failure, sclerosis, leukemia.

Symptoms Of Osteoporosis:

  1. Neck and back Pain.
  2. Lack of bone density of the jaw.
  3. A stooped posture.
  4. Curvature of the spine and lack of height with age.

Complications of osteoporosis:

Bone fractures are the most common complications of osteoporosis in people with steoporosis. Most fractures usually occur in the spine and in the bones of the pelvis, because they are the main bones that carry the bulk of the body weight. Fractures in the pelvis usually occur as a result of strikes or falls.

Although the majority of people with osteoporosis are well cured by advanced and modern surgical solutions, fractures that may occur in the pelvis may cause the patient to have a disability, and sometimes even die, due to complications that may arise, the aftermath of surgeries, especially for the elderly. Hand-broken fractures are also widespread fractures among osteoporosis sufferers, often caused by falls.

Spinal fractures may occur, in some cases, without being hit or falling, simply because there is weakness in the back bones (vertebrae), to the extent that they begin to compress (apply) a paragraph above the other. The compression of the vertebrae causes severe back pain that requires a long period of hospitalization.

The appearance of a large number of fractions may result in the loss of some centimeters of height, and the position becomes bent.

Treatment of osteoporosis:

Lifestyle adjustments:

 In the case of osteoporosis, it is necessary to adhere to certain health habits that may limit the severity of this problem, as well as to reduce the risk of osteoporosis, and we mention the following tips:

Regular exercise:

Some studies indicate that some types of exercise may increase the density of bones, and exercise, which is recommended in general practice: walking, and carrying weights, and that follow the instructions and supervision of the specialist doctor.

Take Care Of What You Eat:

  • Take enough calcium: Because calcium can be obtained by drinking milk, calcium-fortified orange juice, and foods high in calcium, such as salmon.
  • Take care to eat large quantities of vegetables and fruits.
  • Eat low-fat dairy products backed by vitamin D to help strengthen bones.
  • Take care to eat fish, such as mackerel, tuna, salmon, and sardines, which contain large amounts of vitamin D.
  • Limit the intake of foods that contain large amounts of sodium, so as to cause sodium loss of calcium from the body and thus the weakness of bone.
  • Refrain from drinking alcohol.
  • Limit the intake of beverages containing caffeine, such as; tea, and coffee because caffeine limits the absorption of calcium, which increases the chance of suffering from poor bones.
  • Limit the intake of soft drinks, because of the high rate of caffeine and phosphorus, and there are some researchers who linked the relationship of soft drinks with osteoporosis indirectly, they realized that taking these drinks drives them to reduce the intake of dairy products, which increases the risk of suffering from osteoporosis.