What is Diabetes Mellitus? Definition, Causes and Symptoms

What is Diabetes Mellitus?

Diabetes is a chronic disease caused by the inability of the pancreas gland to produce sufficient amount of insulin or when the body cannot use the insulin produced by the required form, insulin is the hormone regulating the blood sugar, and the incidence of high sugar without control leads to Damage to many body organs in the long run, especially in the nerves and blood vessels.

Causes of diabetes mellitus:

  • Diabetes Type I (Juvenile type, Type1):

This type is known as autoimmune dysfunction, as the immune system in the body attacks the pancreas cells responsible for the secretion of insulin (called beta cells) gradually over the years, and the symptoms show only when more than 85-90% of these cells die, then only there is a deficiency in the amount of insulin excreted. Thus, the body's cells cannot exploit glucose from the blood. These patients are forced to take insulin by injection permanently and hence the additional label of the disease: Insulin-dependent diabetes. It should be noted that most patients of this type are under the age of thirty (as opposed to type II diabetes). This type of disease, like the rest of autoimmune diseases, is unclear. Inheritance is an important factor. Having a sick person in the family increases the risk of developing the disease.

There are other rare causes of diabetes, some of which are:

  • Genetic diseases:

A genetic mutation leading to a defect in the work of an enzyme or receptors in the pancreas, leading to a defect in the secretion of insulin.

  • Cystic fibrosis:

Diabetes shows people suffering from late-stage fibrosis and recurrent pancreatitis. Surgery that requires pancreatic output.

  • Excessive use of Steroids:

It raises blood sugar and increases resistance to insulin.

  • Type 2 diabetes(adult): 

This type constitutes the majority of cases of diabetes and is caused by an imbalance acquired in the ability of the body's cells to respond to insulin completely and as a result decreases the ability of cells to enter glucose from the blood. In other words, these "diseased" cells need a greater amount of insulin, compared with peaceful cells, to respond as needed. In the early stages of this disorder, the cells respond less to insulin followed by a slightly higher glucose ratio than the right proportion, but the glucose at the same time does not reach the numbers correspond to the diagnosis of diabetes. This is called "pre-diabetes" and is considered a stage before the progression to diabetes. This type usually affects adults who are often obese and lack sports. There are several known factors contributing to insulin resistance mentioned above, the more these factors in the person are more exposed to the disease. The most important risk factors are:

  • Ethnic origin: For example, black Americans are more likely to have diabetes.
  • Obesity and high fat levels in the blood: One of the most important reasons known, as the exposure of the body's cells to a high proportion of fats in a chronic cause of functional changes in it. These changes ultimately contribute to impaired insulin response.
  • Genetics: one of the most important factors. Having relatives with the disease increases the risk of it.
  • A lifestyle that lacks movement and sport: In addition to weight loss, regular sports activities increase the sensitivity of insulin cells to insulin cells.
  • Nutrition: like high-fat foods.
  • Hypertension.
  • Consumption of alcoholic beverages.
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Exposure to gestational diabetes in the past.
  • Exposure to "Polycystic Ovary Syndrome" in the past.

symptoms of diabetes Mellitus:

There are a number of common signs that accompany this disease:

  • Excessive hunger:

One of the signs of diabetes is excessive hunger, due to the lack of regulation of the amount of glucose used by the cells of the body to get energy, then your body automatically starts looking for additional sources of fuel, causing constant hunger.

  • Increased urination

The scientists explained that the increase in blood sugar activates the work of kidneys, which seeks to get rid of excessive proportion of urine, which leads to frequent urination.

  • Dry mouth

Because your body loses many fluids by urinating, it leads to severe dehydration and thirst, which causes dry mouth, skin and itching severe on various parts of the body.

  • Week vision

If your vision becomes blurry and you are having trouble focusing and not being able to see the finer details it can be a symptom of high blood sugar levels. On the other hand, high blood sugar leads to changes in fluid levels in the body, which in turn causes the swelling of the lenses in your eyes, which affects your ability to see.

  • Fatigue

Because of elevated blood sugar levels the body becomes unable to properly respond to insulin and even cells cannot absorb glucose in the blood, this leads to fatigue and weakness despite eating properly and enjoying adequate sleep.