women with menopause

What is Menopause? Symptoms, Causes, Complications And Treatment

What is Menopause?

Menopause can be defined as the age at which menstrual blood stops due to lower estrogen levels in women, where women become unable to conceive, and women often have menopause at age 45-55 the average menopause rate in women in the UK is estimated at 51 years. In fact, women may reach menopause at an early age. One out of every 100 women may enter this stage before age 40, Primary ovarian insufficiency.

Symptoms of Menopause

Women experience different symptoms during menopause, and these symptoms vary in intensity from one woman to another, as this is determined by several factors, the symptoms may appear severe in cases where women enter this phase suddenly or within a short period of time, The presence of diseases and other health problems in the ovaries may increase the severity and persistence of symptoms such as cancer or hysterectomy. Smoking is also one of the bad habits that increase the severity of the symptoms that appear on women during this period. The most common symptoms of menopause can be summarized as follows:

  • Insomnia.
  • Anxiety.
  • Vaginal dryness.
  • Overweight.
  • Feeling depressed.
  • Difficulty concentrating.
  • Problems occur on the memory level.
  • Low libido.
  • Dry skin, mouth, eyes.
  • Increased urination.
  • Feeling pain when touching breasts.
  • Headaches.
  • Accelerating heartbeat.
  • Urinary tract infections.
  • Low muscle mass.
  • Joint stiffness and pain.
  • Decreased bone mass.
  • Weak hair or falling hair.
  • Increase hair growth in some parts of the body, such as the face, neck, chest, and upper back.
  • Hot flushes.
  • Night sweats.

 Causes of menopause:

Women reach menopause either as a natural consequence of aging, or as a result of other health factors or problems. 

Low levels of female sex hormones:

The decline in the level of these hormones gradually, hormones begin to decline when the women reach the age of thirty years, and as a result affected by the number of days of menopause, and the abundance of blood, in addition to this decline also affects the fertility of women, This disorder continues until the woman reaches the age of about 51, and then the menstrual cycle is completely interrupted, and ovarian activity stops and the eggs produce.


 Can also result in the removal of the ovaries, and then women suddenly reach menopause. In contrast, hysterectomy without ovarian resection does not cause women to suddenly enter menopause despite a break in descent Blood cycle, due to the continuation of ovaries in the production of oocytes and the production of hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Chemotherapy and radiation therapy:

Chemotherapy used in the treatment of cancer can cause menopause. Women experience various symptoms, whether during treatment or shortly after completion. However, it is worth noting that the effect of chemotherapy PMS and fertility may disappear in some cases after the completion of chemotherapy, where women recover fertility and reproductive capacity.

 Primary ovarian insufficiency:

Primary ovarian insufficiency may occur as a result of genetic factors or autoimmune diseases. As a result, the ovaries lose their ability to produce female hormones; estrogen and progesterone. Thus, women enter menopause at an early age before the age of forty, , And here should be alert to the need to compensate hormones in the body of the female until the age of natural menopause on the weakest estimate, in order to protect the heart and bones and the brain from exposure to various problems and complications.

Menopause complications:

There are a number of complications that women may suffer after reaching menopause, and mention of these complications include:

  • Suffering from dyspepsia (Dyspareunia).
  • Low speed metabolic processes in the body.
  • Osteoporosis, or weakness due to lack of density and strength.
  • Mood swings and feelings suddenly.
  • Cataract is known as Cataract.
  • Periodontal disease.
  • Hyperactive bladder.
  • Cardiovascular disease.

Treatment of Menopausal symptoms: (hormone treatment)

Doctors usually resort to hormone therapy in some cases, including the treatment of menopausal symptoms in women, but should not periodically check the breast with hormone therapy, including the following:

  • Continuous treatment with estrogen and progesterone hormones, and in the form of pills that cause menstruation.
  • Estrogen and progesterone are cyclic, and these hormones are taken in the form of daily tablets for 21 days and lead to sweating and menstrual cycle.
  • Treatment with Tibolone, a drug that has the effect of estrogen in the body and is taken in the form of tablets.
  • Gabapentin has been approved for the treatment of seizures, but has also been shown to help reduce hot flashes. This drug is useful in women who cannot be treated with estrogen therapy and who suffer from hot flashes at night.
  • There are other types of birth control pills or osteoporosis medications that can be used.
  • Subcutaneous hormones are given by a device that can be used and performed by surgical removal of the ovary.
  • Estrogen is given by a skin patch that is changed every 4-7 days and is used in older women in menopause.
  • Topical estrogen, and is taken by a type of vaginal suppositories or by ointment, an effective medication for those who suffer from decreased libido and vaginal dryness.

Important warnings before following any type of hormone treatment, you should first talk to your doctor, and not follow any treatment without advice, especially in the following cases:

  • Breast cancer or uterine cancer.
  • In case of a liver disease.
  • Women with high blood pressure.
  • If you have blood clots.