Ringworm | Causes, Symptoms, Home Remedies & Prevention

What is Ring Worm ?

Ringworm, despite its name, is not caused by a worm at all. It is a highly contagious fungal infection that affects the skin, hair, or nails. The term “ringworm” comes from the characteristic circular or ring-shaped rash that often develops on the affected areas. This condition is medically known as dermatophytosis. It is caused by various types of fungi called dermatophytes, which thrive in warm, moist environments.

Ringworm can manifest on different parts of the body, including the scalp, feet (known as athlete’s foot), groin (jock itch), and other areas of the skin. Each type of ringworm infection is named based on its location. For example, when it occurs on the scalp, it is referred to as tinea capitis.

The symptoms of ringworm typically include red, scaly, and itchy patches on the skin. The affected area may become raised, and the edges of the rash may be more defined. In some cases, there may be small, fluid-filled blisters that can break and crust over.

Due to its contagious nature, ringworm can spread from person to person through direct skin-to-skin contact, as well as by sharing contaminated items like towels, clothing, or sports equipment. It can also be contracted from infected animals, particularly cats and dogs.

Treatment for ringworm usually involves antifungal medications, which can be in the form of topical creams, ointments, or oral medications depending on the severity and location of the infection. It’s crucial to complete the full course of treatment to ensure the fungus is completely eradicated.

In addition to medical intervention, practicing good hygiene, keeping the affected area clean and dry, and avoiding contact with infected individuals or animals are important steps in preventing the spread of ringworm. If left untreated, ringworm can persist and lead to complications, so seeking prompt medical attention is crucial for a swift and effective recovery.

Ringworm Stages

Ringworm infection typically progresses through several stages, each with distinct characteristics. Here is an overview of the stages of ringworm:

  1. Incubation Period: After initial exposure to the fungus, there is an incubation period where the infection is present but symptoms have not yet appeared. This period can range from a few days to several weeks.
  2. Red Patch: The infection starts as a small, red, and slightly raised patch on the skin. This patch may be itchy and may resemble a bug bite or a minor skin irritation.
  3. Expanding Ring: As the fungus grows, the affected area expands, forming a characteristic ring-like shape. The center of the patch often starts to clear, giving it a ring-like appearance.
  4. Raised Edges: The edges of the ringworm patch become more defined and raised. They may be slightly raised compared to the center of the lesion.
  5. Blistering (Optional): In some cases, small, fluid-filled blisters may develop within the ringworm lesion. These can break open and crust over.
  6. Central Clearing (Optional): The center of the ringworm patch may start to clear, leaving a reddish or normal-looking skin tone in the middle.
  7. Healing and Resolution: With proper treatment, the ringworm infection will gradually improve. The outer edges of the rash will start to fade, and the center will continue to clear.
  8. Complete Resolution: With appropriate treatment and time, the ringworm infection will completely resolve. The affected area will return to its normal skin tone, and any associated symptoms (such as itching) will subside.

Causes of Ringworm

Ringworm is caused by a group of fungi known as dermatophytes. These fungi thrive in warm, moist environments and can infect the skin, hair, and nails of humans and animals. There are several species of dermatophytes that can cause ringworm, including Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton. Each of these species may be responsible for different types of ringworm infections in various parts of the body.

  1. Direct Contact: The most common mode of transmission is direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected person or animal. This can occur through activities like hugging, handshakes, or close contact during sports.
  2. Contaminated Objects: Ringworm fungi can survive on surfaces and objects, such as clothing, towels, bedding, combs, and brushes, for an extended period. If a person comes into contact with these contaminated items, they can contract the infection.
  3. Infected Animals: Pets, especially cats and dogs, can carry the fungus and pass it on to humans. This is particularly common in households with multiple pets or in places where animals are in close contact with humans, like shelters or farms.
  4. Public Spaces: Ringworm can sometimes be contracted in communal areas like locker rooms, swimming pools, and shared sports equipment. The fungus can linger on these surfaces, making it possible for individuals to become infected.
  5. Soil and Environment: Some dermatophytes can be found in soil, and contact with contaminated soil or surfaces can lead to infection, especially for individuals with cuts or abrasions on their skin.
  6. Weakened Immune System: Individuals with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to ringworm infections. This can include people with conditions like HIV/AIDS, those undergoing chemotherapy, or individuals taking immunosuppressive medications.
  7. Poor Hygiene: Failing to maintain proper hygiene, such as not washing hands or body regularly, can increase the risk of contracting ringworm.
  8. Warm, Humid Climates: Regions with warm, humid climates provide an ideal environment for the growth and spread of the fungi that cause ringworm.

Symptoms of Ringworm

Here are the symptoms of ringworm:

  • Circular or ring-shaped rash on the skin.
  • Red, scaly, and itchy patches.
  • Raised edges around the affected area.
  • Small, fluid-filled blisters that may break and crust over.
  • Hair loss or brittle, discolored nails in specific cases.
  • Itching and discomfort in the affected area.
  • Possible pain or tenderness.
  • Symptoms can vary based on the location of the infection (e.g., scalp, feet, groin).

Prevention Tips for Ringworm

1) Maintain Good Personal Hygiene:
Keep skin clean and dry, and wash hands regularly, especially after contact with pets or potentially contaminated objects.

2) Avoid Direct Contact:
Minimize skin-to-skin contact with infected individuals or animals.

3) Do Not Share Personal Items:
Refrain from sharing towels, clothing, combs, brushes, or any items that may have come into contact with infected areas.

4) Keep Living Spaces Clean:
Regularly clean and disinfect surfaces, particularly those that come into contact with skin, such as bedding and bathroom fixtures.

5) Wear Appropriate Footwear:
Use flip-flops or sandals in communal areas like locker rooms and swimming pools to reduce the risk of picking up the fungus.

6) Use Protective Gear:
When participating in contact sports or activities that involve close physical contact, wear protective clothing to minimize the risk of transmission.

7) Treat Infected Pets Promptly:
If you have pets, ensure they receive veterinary care for any signs of infection to prevent transmission to humans.

8) Avoid Contaminated Environments:
Steer clear of areas where the fungus is likely to be present, such as soil with known dermatophytes.

9) Educate Children:
Teach children about the importance of good hygiene practices and avoiding contact with potentially infected individuals or animals.

10) Seek Medical Attention Promptly:
If you suspect you have ringworm or have been in contact with someone who has it, seek medical advice promptly for diagnosis and treatment. If diagnosed with ringworm, complete the full course of prescribed antifungal treatment as directed by a healthcare professional.

Home Remedies for Ringworm

To get relief from ringworm and itching, people first use home remedies. Let us know what those home remedies are:

1) Tea Tree Oil:

  • Apply diluted tea tree oil (mix with a carrier oil like coconut or olive oil) directly to the affected area using a clean cotton ball.
  • Tea tree oil has antifungal properties that can help combat the ringworm fungus.

2) Apple Cider Vinegar:

  • Mix equal parts of water and raw, unfiltered apple cider vinegar.
  • Apply the solution to the affected area using a cotton ball or clean cloth.
  • Rinse with water after a few minutes.
  • The acidity of apple cider vinegar helps create an environment that is inhospitable for the fungus.

3) Garlic:

  • Crush a garlic clove to release its juices.
  • Apply the juice to the affected area and leave for a few minutes before rinsing with water.
  • Garlic contains allicin, a natural antifungal compound.

4) Coconut Oil:

  • Apply pure, organic coconut oil to the affected area several times a day.
  • Coconut oil has antifungal properties and can help soothe irritated skin.

5) Aloe Vera:

  • Extract the gel from an aloe vera leaf.
  • Apply the gel directly to the affected area.
  • Aloe vera has natural anti-inflammatory and antifungal properties.

6) Turmeric:

  • Mix turmeric powder with water or coconut oil to form a paste.
  • Apply the paste to the affected area and leave it on for about 30 minutes before rinsing.
  • Turmeric contains curcumin, which has antifungal properties.

7) Oregano Oil:

  • Dilute oregano oil with a carrier oil and apply it to the affected area.
  • Oregano oil is rich in thymol and carvacrol, which have antifungal properties.

8) Salt Bath:

  • Add a generous amount of salt to warm bathwater.
  • Soak in the bath for 15-20 minutes.
  • This can help soothe the affected skin and create an environment less conducive for the fungus.

9) Ginger:

  • Crush fresh ginger and apply the juice to the affected area.
  • Ginger contains compounds like gingerol that possess antifungal properties.

10) Musturd Oil:
Soak mustard seeds in water for half an hour. After this, grind it and apply it on the infected area. This is the perfect medicine for ringworm.

11) Lemon Grass:
Make a decoction of lemon grass and drink it three times a day. This relieves itching and infection. This helps in the treatment of ringworm.

13) Bitter Gourd and Rose Water:
Apply by mixing bitter gourd leaf juice and rose water. This provides immediate relief from ringworm and itching. For better benefits, definitely consult an doctor.

14) Jojoba Oil and Lavender Oil:
Mix one drop of lavender oil in one spoon of jojoba oil and apply it on the affected area with the help of cotton. This is a good solution for children.

15) Cucumber:
You can treat ringworm with cucumber. Apply cucumber juice on the affected area with the help of cotton. Ringworm is treated with cucumber juice.

16) Cinnamon:
Ringworm can be cured quickly by grinding cinnamon leaves and applying it on the affected area with honey.

17) Neem Water:
Boil fresh neem leaves in water, cool the water and use this water for bathing to provide relief from ringworm and itching.

18) Salt and Vinegar:
Make a paste by mixing salt and vinegar. Apply it on the affected area five times a day. This cures ringworm.

19) Castor Leaf:
Chew olive leaves two to three times a day. It increases the immunity of the body. This helps in curing ringworm.

20) Tamarind Paste:
Grind tamarind seeds in lemon juice. Now apply it on the ringworm area. This cures ringworm immediately.

However, it’s important to note that these remedies are not a substitute for professional medical treatment. If the infection persists or worsens, seek advice from a healthcare provider.


What Does Ringworm Look Like?
It often appears as a circular or ring-shaped rash with red, scaly, and itchy patches. The edges may be raised, and there may be small, fluid-filled blisters.

Can Pets Spread Ringworm?
Yes, pets, especially cats and dogs, can carry the fungus and pass it on to humans. It’s important to treat infected pets promptly.

Can Ringworm Affect Nails?
Yes, ringworm can infect the nails, causing them to become discolored, brittle, or thickened.

How is Ringworm Diagnosed?
A healthcare provider can often diagnose ringworm based on the appearance of the rash. In some cases, they may take a skin scraping for further examination.

What is the Treatment for Ringworm?
Treatment usually involves antifungal medications, either topical creams/ointments or oral medications, depending on the location and severity of the infection.

How Long Does it Take to Cure Ringworm?
With proper treatment, ringworm can start to improve within a few days to a couple of weeks. It’s important to complete the full course of treatment to ensure complete eradication.

Can Ringworm Lead to Complications?
If left untreated, ringworm can persist and lead to complications such as secondary bacterial infections or spread to other parts of the body.

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