Mucus | Symptoms, Causes, Types, Home Remedies & Prevention

What is Mucus ?

Mucus is a slippery, gel-like substance produced by various membranes and glands in the body, particularly in the respiratory and digestive systems. It serves several important functions in maintaining our health and well-being.

In the respiratory system, mucus acts as a protective barrier. The cells lining the respiratory tract, from the nose down to the lungs, secrete mucus to trap foreign particles like dust, bacteria, and viruses. This sticky layer of mucus helps prevent these harmful agents from reaching the delicate lung tissues. Cilia, tiny hair-like structures in the respiratory tract, then move the mucus along with trapped particles upward, where it can be either coughed out or swallowed and eliminated through the digestive system.

In the digestive system, mucus plays a crucial role in lubricating the passage of food through the esophagus and intestines. It prevents the walls of these organs from becoming dry and facilitates the smooth movement of food, allowing for effective digestion and absorption of nutrients.

Furthermore, mucus contains various enzymes and antibodies that help to break down and neutralize harmful substances. It also contains immune cells that can respond to infections and inflammation, providing an additional line of defense against pathogens.

When an individual is sick or dealing with allergies, the production of mucus can increase as the body attempts to clear out irritants or pathogens. This can result in symptoms like a runny or stuffy nose, coughing, or throat congestion.

The problem of mucus is due to cold and cough. Congestion can occur due to a high throat infection, which blocks your bronchial tubes. This often causes respiratory infections and makes breathing difficult. It is most important to treat it before it becomes serious. The blockage and congestion felt in the throat leads to difficulty in breathing, fever and weakness in the body.

Types of Mucus

Mucus comes in various types, depending on the location and function within the body. Here are some of the different types of mucus:

1) Respiratory Mucus:

a) Nasal Mucus: This is the mucus produced in the nasal passages. It helps to trap and remove foreign particles, such as dust, pollen, and bacteria, from the air we breathe.
b) Tracheal and Bronchial Mucus: Found in the trachea and bronchi of the respiratory tract, this mucus serves a similar purpose as nasal mucus, trapping particles and helping to protect the lungs.

2) Digestive Mucus:

a) Salivary Mucus: Produced in the salivary glands, it helps in lubricating food for easier swallowing and digestion in the mouth.
b) Gastric Mucus: This mucus is secreted by the stomach lining. It forms a protective layer that prevents the stomach’s acidic juices from damaging the stomach itself.
c) Intestinal Mucus: Produced in the intestines, it helps in lubricating the passage of food through the digestive tract and also contains enzymes that aid in digestion.

3) Cervical Mucus:
Produced by the cervix in the female reproductive system, cervical mucus changes in consistency throughout the menstrual cycle. It plays a crucial role in fertility, helping or hindering sperm movement depending on the woman’s fertility status.

4) Cervicovaginal Mucus:
This type of mucus is found in the vaginal and cervical areas. It provides lubrication and helps maintain a healthy pH level, which is important for preventing infections.

5) Sinus Mucus:
Sinus mucus lines the sinuses and helps to trap and eliminate pathogens and irritants from the nasal passages. In conditions like sinusitis, this mucus can become thick and cause congestion.

6) Mucous Membrane Secretions:
Mucus is also produced by various mucous membranes throughout the body, including those in the eyes, ears, and reproductive organs. These secretions serve to protect and lubricate these sensitive tissues.

Causes of Mucus

The production of mucus is a normal and essential bodily function, serving to protect and lubricate various tissues and organs. However, excessive or abnormal mucus production can be caused by a variety of factors. Here are some common causes of increased mucus production:

1) Infections:
a) Respiratory Infections:
Viral infections like the common cold, influenza, or bacterial infections like bronchitis or pneumonia can lead to increased mucus production in the respiratory tract.
b) Sinus Infections (Sinusitis): Inflammation and infection of the sinuses can cause thickened and excess mucus in the nasal passages and sinuses.
c) Gastrointestinal Infections: Infections in the digestive system, such as gastroenteritis or bacterial overgrowth, can lead to increased mucus production in the intestines.

2) Digestive Conditions:
a) Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD):
This condition can lead to irritation of the esophagus, causing increased production of mucus to protect the lining.
b) Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): Conditions like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis can lead to inflammation in the intestines, resulting in increased mucus production.

3) Allergies:
Allergic reactions to pollen, dust mites, animal dander, or certain foods can trigger the release of histamines. These chemicals can lead to nasal congestion and increased mucus production.

4) Environmental Irritants:
Exposure to irritants like smoke, pollution, strong odors, or chemical fumes can lead to increased mucus production as the body attempts to protect the respiratory tract.

5) Chronic Respiratory Conditions:
Conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchiectasis can lead to chronic inflammation and increased mucus production in the airways.

6) Dehydration:
When the body is dehydrated, mucus can become thicker and stickier. This can occur in conditions where fluid intake is insufficient.

7) Hormonal Changes:
Changes in hormone levels, such as those that occur during pregnancy or menstruation, can lead to variations in cervical and cervical-vaginal mucus production.

8) Smoking:
Smoking irritates the respiratory tract, leading to increased mucus production as a protective response.

9) Medications:
Some medications, especially those for allergies or respiratory conditions, can lead to increased mucus production as a side effect.

10) Stress:
Chronic stress can lead to changes in the immune system, potentially increasing mucus production as a response to perceived threats.

Symptoms of Mucus

Symptoms associated with excessive mucus production can vary depending on the underlying cause and the affected area of the body. Here are some common symptoms related to mucus:

  • Nasal congestion
  • Runny nose
  • Postnasal drip
  • Coughing
  • Wheezing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Mucus in stool
  • Abdominal discomfort
  • Watery eyes
  • Itching
  • Throat clearing
  • Bad breath
  • Changes in cervical mucus
  • Fatigue
  • General irritation

Prevention Tips for Mucus

  • Adequate hydration helps maintain the proper consistency of mucus, preventing it from becoming too thick and sticky.
  • Steer clear of smoke, strong odors, chemical fumes, and other environmental irritants that can trigger increased mucus production.
  • Regularly clean and dust your living space to reduce exposure to allergens like pollen, dust mites, and pet dander.
  • Wash your hands frequently, especially during cold and flu seasons, to minimize the spread of viruses that can lead to increased mucus production.
  • Adding moisture to the air can help keep mucous membranes in the respiratory tract hydrated, preventing excessive mucus production.
  • Take measures to reduce exposure to allergens, such as using allergen-proof covers on pillows and mattresses, and considering allergy medications or immunotherapy.
  • Ensure good ventilation in your home to prevent the buildup of indoor air pollutants that can irritate the respiratory system.
  • Include foods rich in antioxidants and vitamins, as they support a healthy immune system, which in turn can help regulate mucus production.
  • Regular physical activity can help improve respiratory health and reduce inflammation, potentially leading to less mucus production.
  • Avoid Smoking and Secondhand Smoke: Smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke can irritate the respiratory tract, leading to increased mucus production. Quitting smoking or avoiding smoke altogether is crucial.
  • If you have chronic respiratory or digestive conditions that lead to excessive mucus production, work closely with your healthcare provider to manage the underlying issue.
  • Chronic stress can affect the immune system and exacerbate mucus production. Engage in relaxation techniques like deep breathing, meditation, or yoga.

Home Remedies for Mucus

During the winter season, due to cold and cough, the problem of mucus formation in the lungs becomes more. Due to the accumulation of mucus, you may have to face the problem of shortness of breath. If it is left untreated, it can lead to many other complications. Before going to the doctor, there are a few things that you can use at home to relieve your symptoms. With these home remedies, you can get rid of the mucus accumulated in the chest. The best part is that these ayurvedic treatment for mucus do not have any side effects.

1) Steam Hot Water

Heat water in a large bowl. Then place a hand towel over your head to help trap the steam around your face. There are no set guidelines for how long to inhale steam, so take steam until you get relief. If the heat is getting excessive, remove the towel.

2) Drink Warm Liquids

You should drink plenty of fluids to get relief from the mucus that has accumulated in the lungs. Fluids help thin the mucus. Especially warm liquids can help loosen mucus in the chest and nose. You can consume hot water, hot apple juice, chicken soup and green tea.

3) Gargle with Warm Water

This treatment is considered to be the best to get rid of the phlegm accumulated in the chest and nose. Gargle with salt water to remove the mucus accumulated in the chest. Gargle two to three times a day by mixing a pinch of salt in lukewarm water. Gargling can also help relieve symptoms of sore throat, cough and fever.

4) Eucalyptus (Nilgiri)

Eucalyptus products have been used for years to ease coughs and loosen mucus. They are usually applied directly to the chest. A few drops of eucalyptus oil can also remove phlegm accumulated in the nose and chest. For this, take a bath by mixing oil in hot water.

5) Salt Water

Salt water is highly effective when it comes to mucus. You can gargle with lukewarm water by adding salt to it. It helps to soothe the burning sensation in the throat. It also clears the passage of bronchial tubes and eases the breathing process. You can do this two-three times a day.

6) Honey and Hot Water

In a 2007 study, researchers found evidence that honey may be more effective than traditional medicine for relieving cough. You can drink honey mixed with warm water or try a mixture of ginger and honey to get relief from cough and mucus accumulated in the lungs.

7) Raw Turmeric (Kachhi Haldi)

Raw turmeric can also be useful. Take some raw turmeric juice and put a few drops in your throat, then stop for a while. If you want, you can also do gargles by mixing turmeric juice with lukewarm water. Turmeric contains an active compound called curcumin, which helps dissolve mucus. Its antibacterial and antiviral properties help in treating cough and cold.

8) Ginger

Ginger has the ability to fight bacterial and virus infections. It is commonly use to get rid of throat infections. It helps in reducing the mucus present in the throat. You can also drink ginger tea.

9) Apple Cider Vinegar

Apple cider vinegar can help thin mucus and support a healthy immune response. Mix a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar in warm water and drink it.

10) Eucalyptus Oil

Eucalyptus oil has decongestant properties and can help open up airways. Add a few drops of eucalyptus oil to a bowl of hot water and inhale the steam.


Can the color of mucus indicate an infection?
Yes, the color of mucus can sometimes provide clues about an infection. For example, green or yellowish mucus may indicate a bacterial infection, while clear or white mucus is more typical of a viral infection.

Is it normal to have mucus in the stool?
Yes, a small amount of mucus in the stool is normal. However, excessive or persistent mucus in the stool may be a sign of an underlying digestive issue and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.

Can dehydration affect the consistency of mucus?
Yes, dehydration can lead to thicker and stickier mucus. Staying hydrated helps maintain the proper consistency of mucus, allowing it to effectively perform its protective functions.

How can I manage excessive mucus production?
Managing excessive mucus production may involve addressing the underlying cause. This could include staying hydrated, avoiding irritants, using saline nasal sprays, and seeking medical advice for specific conditions.

When should I seek medical attention for mucus-related issues?
If you experience persistent or severe mucus production, especially if it’s accompanied by other concerning symptoms like fever, chest pain, difficulty breathing, or blood in mucus, it’s advisable to seek medical attention for proper evaluation and treatment.

Disclaimer : This article is for general information only. It cannot in any way be a substitute for any medicine or treatment. Always contact your doctor for more details.

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