Tuberculosis (T.B.) | Symptoms, Causes, Home Remedies, Diagnosis & Prevention

What is Tuberculosis (TB) ?

Tuberculosis, often referred to as TB, is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs but can also impact other parts of the body. Our body’s immune system fights against pathogenic bacteria all the time. But, as the immune system weakens, diseases start to dominate. Similarly, one of the diseases is TB disease. The full name of TB is tuberculosis, which is caused by a bacterium called ‘Mycobacterium tuberculosis’. TB disease mainly damages the lungs. However, the TB virus can also affect the intestine, brain, bones, joints, kidneys, skin, and heart. If a person is suffering from a cough that is not stopping for more than 3 weeks, in which both dry and wet mucus is coming, then that cough may be TB. 

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that affects a person’s lungs and respiratory system. This disease is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Due to its highly communicable form, the disease is the second fatal disease globally.

A cough that lasts for two weeks or more can be the main symptom of TB. At the same time, other symptoms include fever in the evening, blood with mucus, weight loss. TB is a contagious disease that can spread from person to person. However, TB of the lungs is a contagious disease. TB bacteria are found in the sputum of a patient with lung TB. These bacteria are spread in the air when the patient coughs, sneezes and spit, and when another person breathes these bacteria reach the lungs of that person and infect him. It is an infectious disease that is transmitted from person to person by coughing and sneezing.

The two types of TB are latent TB and active TB. Latent tuberculosis is not contagious and the bacteria remain dormant in the body. In active TB the bacteria are active and thus can spread from person to person. Common symptoms of the disease are cough, fatigue, fever, chills, night sweats, chest pain, shortness of breath, loss of appetite for more than 3 months. There are various drugs and antibiotics to stop the growth of the bacteria that cause TB. Many forms of the disease have become drug resistant.

Types of Tuberculosis

1) Latent TB :

You can have tuberculosis bacteria in your body, but your immunity keeps them from spreading, this is called latent or latent TB. TB is also kept in the category of infectious diseases. It spreads through air, that is, breath. But the bacteria of latent TB grow very slowly. Therefore, the chances of their spreading from person to person are very less.

2) Active TB :

Although there is only a 10% chance that latent TB will become active, people who have compromised immune systems are at high risk of triggering this latent disease. In active TB, the disease-causing bacteria show symptoms of TB and the disease is contagious.

Causes of Tuberculosis (TB) 

  • TB is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is spread when a person with active TB in the lungs coughs or sneezes and another person inhales the expelled droplets, which contain TB bacteria. One has to be exposed to the infection for a long time to catch the infection.
  • Not everyone with TB is contagious. Children with TB or people with TB infection outside the lungs (extrapulmonary tuberculosis) do not spread the infection.

Symptoms of Tuberculosis

Although your body can harbor the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, as latent TB symptoms are not visible, so here we have explained the symptoms of active TB which are as follows :

  • Loss of appetite and weight loss
  • High temperature (fever)
  • Extreme tiredness and exhaustion
  • Cough that lasts more than three weeks
  • Coughing up blood
  • Chest pain or pain with breathing or coughing
  • Night sweats
  • Chills

TB can affect other parts of the body besides your lungs, including your kidneys, spine, and brain. When TB is outside your lungs, its signs and symptoms vary according to the organs involved. For example, tuberculosis of the spinal cord can give you back pain, and tuberculosis in your kidneys can cause blood in your urine.

  • If TB infects the bones, it can cause bone pain and joint pain.
  • TB in the brain can cause meningitis.
  • TB in the liver and kidneys can impair their waste-filtering functions and cause blood in the urine.
  • TB in the heart can impair the heart’s ability to pump blood, resulting in a condition called cardiac tamponade that can be fatal.
Tuberculosis (T.B.)

Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

  • Those who live, visit, or spend time in a country or region with high levels of TB.
  • Prolonged close contact with an infected person.
  • Living in crowded conditions.
  • With a condition that weakens the immune system, such as HIV.
  • Taking treatments that weaken the immune system, such as chemotherapy or biologic agents.
  • who are very young or very old.
  • In poor health or with a poor diet due to lifestyle or other problems such as drug abuse, alcohol abuse or homelessness.

Ways to Prevent Tuberculosis (T.B.) of Lungs

  • See a doctor if cough persists for more than 2 weeks. Take the full course of medicine. Do not stop the medicine without asking the doctor.
  • Wear a mask or cover your mouth with a paper napkin every time you cough or sneeze.
  • The patient should spit in a plastic bag and put phenyl in it and put it in the dustbin. Don’t spit here and there.
  • The patient stayed in a well ventilated and well lit room. Also avoid AC.
  • Eat nutritious food, do exercise and yoga.
  • Avoid bidi, cigarette, hookah, tobacco, alcohol etc.
  • Avoid going to crowded and dirty places.
  • Get the BCG vaccine at birth.

Diagnosis of Tuberculosis 

Both the sputum test and the CBNAAT test will be needed to diagnose TB or tuberculosis. The main advantage of CBNAAT test is that it is able to confirm whether TB disease has been treated with 4 antibiotics Can be done or it is MDR. Apart from this, sometimes the sputum test done by the laboratory is also not accurate due to many factors.

1) CBNAAT Test :

The CBNAAT test also known as the GeneXpert test is a molecular or molecular test for TB that diagnoses TB by detecting the presence of TB bacteria as well as testing for resistance to the drug rifampicin. The full form of CB-NAAT test is Cartridge Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test.

2) Tuberculosis Blood Test :

Two new blood tests are now used to detect tuberculosis germs in place of the tuberculosis skin test. Each test involves taking a blood sample that is then stimulated with a group of antigens (proteins) found in the bacteria that cause TB. If your immune system has ever seen these antigens, your cells will produce interferon-gamma, a substance produced by our immune system and that can be measured in a laboratory.

3) Tuberculin Skin Test :

The tuberculin skin test uses dead TB germs that are injected into the skin. If the person is infected with TB, a lump will form at the injection site, which means that TB germs have infected the body, although this does not necessarily mean that the person has active TB.

4) Sputum Test :

In this test, samples of mucus released from the lungs are tested, which tells whether TB germs are present or not. The sputum is examined under a microscope (a “sputum smear”) to look for evidence of TB organisms.

5) Chest X-Ray :

This test does not detect TB in its latent stage. If a person has been infected with TB some time ago, but has not yet developed active disease, a chest X-ray will not detect the disease and will be normal. Some people do not show anything on their chest X-ray even after getting TB in skin test and TB blood test. Only if the TB germ has attacked and the lungs are inflamed, a chest X-ray will detect TB.

14 Ayurvedic Home Remedies for Tuberculosis (TB)

1) For the prevention of lung cancer, grind garlic cloves with 2 nos. and take 250 ml. Boil it in milk. When it becomes thick like kheer, take off the milk and cool it for drinking and drink it. Use this regularly only once a day in the morning or at night while sleeping for 1-2 months as needed. Tuberculosis is cured by its consumption. Apart from this, there is also an expected benefit in high blood pressure and also prevention of high blood pressure.

2) People who consume garlic properly do not get tuberculosis. Garlic is a very strong disinfectant and is also a good alternative to today’s modern antibiotics. Tuberculosis germs (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) are destroyed by its use. Peel the garlic cloves before using. (Even after peeling the garlic bud, its buds are wrapped with a very fine membrane. This membrane should also be separated) Cut 1 bud into 3-4 pieces and twice a day after half an hour of meals Cut off the garlic cloves. After chewing 1 piece, drink water from above or chew 4 pieces of 1 bud by placing 2-2 pieces in 1-1 raisin.

3) Feeding 100-100 grams of donkey’s milk twice a day in the morning and evening to the TB sufferer, cures tuberculosis, this milk is nutritious besides being anti-tuberculosis.

4) Taking 5-5 grams of Adusa (Malabar nut), Kateri juice and honey and 1 % full of powder of peepli daily cures tuberculosis.

5) By drinking the juice of dhak leaves, tuberculosis disease is cured.

6) Drinking lime (quicklime) water mixed with milk cures tuberculosis disease.

7) Boiling leaves of Talish patra and Adusa (Malabar nut) in water and drinking it cures tuberculosis.

8) Licking the powder of Asangand and Peepal mixed with honey, ghee (butter) and sugar ends tuberculosis.

9) By eating butter, honey and sugar, the patient suffering from tuberculosis becomes strong.

10) Take equal quantity of black pepper, giloy (Heart-leaved moonseed) extract, small cardamom seeds, real Vanshlochan and Bhilava and prepare the powdered cloth after grinding and keep it safe. Tuberculosis is destroyed by taking this medicine mixed with butter or cream thrice a day in the amount of 2 to 2 grains.

11) Grind 10-20 grams of Peepal tree in goat’s milk and take it twice a day, it cures tuberculosis in 5 days.

12) Grind ashwagandha and small peepal in equal quantity. Mix double quantity of sugar and ghee in it, then keep it with double honey. Tuberculosis is cured by taking this medicine in the amount of 3 to 6 grams with goat’s milk.

13) Mix 200-200 grams of honey and Kunja sugar and 100 grams of Goghrit and keep it. After eating 6-6 grams of it several times a day, drinking goat’s milk from above ends tuberculosis.

14) Tuberculosis is cured by taking Peepli Kalpa.


What should not be eaten in Tuberculosis ?

The foods that should be avoided in case of tuberculosis are:

  • Coffee
  • Refined products such as sugar, white rice or bread
  • Tobacco
  • High Cholesterol and Fat Foods
  • Liquor

Can tuberculosis kill ?

Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria that usually attack the lungs, in some cases, it can also affect the kidneys, spine, and brain. Tuberculosis can be fatal if adequate treatment is not received.

What should you not do if you have tuberculosis ?

  • Don’t Avoid Medical Care
  • Avoid discontinuing the medication unless instructed by the doctor
  • don’t spit in public

Should I worry about tuberculosis ?

If left untreated, tuberculosis bacteria attack the lungs as well as the spine, brain, and kidneys and can thus be fatal. It is important to see a doctor if you have been in contact with a person with TB or develop symptoms of the disease such as cough, weight loss, fever, night sweats, swollen glands, etc.

Where Does Tuberculosis Come From ?

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is transmitted from person to person through microscopic droplets in the air. Tuberculosis usually spreads when someone has undiagnosed or untreated symptoms.

Which food is good for tuberculosis patients ?

  • Foods rich in vitamins A, C and E: Fruits and vegetables like oranges, sweet pumpkin, mango, carrot, guava, amla, tomato, nuts and seeds are rich sources of these.
  • Protein rich food: The appetite of TB patients decreases. It is very important for them to indulge in foods like eggs, paneer and soya chunks as they are rich in protein. These foods can be easily absorbed by the body and can give you the required energy.
  • Foods rich in B complex vitamins: Whole grains, nuts, seeds, fish and chicken must be consumed by TB patients.
  • Foods Rich in Zinc: Nuts are a great source of zinc which can provide essential nutrients to the body. Nuts and seeds like sunflower seeds, chia seeds and pumpkin seeds and flaxseeds are quite beneficial for TB patients.

How is Tuberculosis transmitted?
TB is primarily spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, releasing tiny droplets containing the bacteria. It is considered an airborne disease.

Who is at risk for contracting Tuberculosis?
While anyone can contract TB, individuals with weakened immune systems (due to conditions like HIV/AIDS), close contacts of TB patients, and those living in crowded or unsanitary conditions are at higher risk.

Is Tuberculosis treatable?
Yes, Tuberculosis is treatable with appropriate antibiotics. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications taken for a specific duration, usually six to nine months.

Is Tuberculosis contagious?
Yes, TB is contagious in its active form. When a person with active TB coughs or sneezes, they release bacteria into the air, potentially infecting others who inhale the contaminated air.

What is latent TB infection?
Latent TB infection occurs when a person has the TB bacteria in their body but is not experiencing symptoms and cannot spread the disease to others. It can develop into active TB if the immune system weakens.

Can Tuberculosis be cured completely?
With appropriate and timely treatment, most cases of TB can be completely cured. However, it’s crucial to complete the entire course of medication as prescribed by a healthcare provider.

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